Role of geo locality in shaping Pakistan’s foreign policy

Written By: Abdul Samad

Geo strategic location is an ever changing dynamic objective of International relations. In a particular geo strategic locality the national power determinants are thought to be constant and this determinant has a very crucial role in shaping foreign policy of any state.

Pakistan is one of the major geopolitically and geo strategically important state. It lies in the South Asia and is bordered with emerging global power that is People’s Republic of China located in North-east of Pakistan, India the largest democratic and the largest consumer market, located on the eastern side of border, with whom Pakistan’s relations are bitter since its inception. Pakistan borders Afghanistan in the north-western regarded as the graveyard of three super powers of time that 1st was  Britain( the king of sea). They then defeated the Soviet Union and it disintegrated after its collapse in Afghanistan. The third and nearest example is of current super power USA , it was engaged in there since 2001 and finally withdrew in 2021 after facing bitter resistance from Taliban and people. Fourth neighbor country located in Southwest is Iran, which has totally changed after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Pakistan’s 5th border nearly 1050kms is attached with Indian ocean that offers the gate of opportunities to it. As a matter of fact world can not ignore Pakistan’s presence as it along with United Nations mediated between Afghan Taliban, and Soviet Union. In near past Pakistan mediated the talks between United States of America and Taliban at Qatar known as Doha agreement or Doha Talks. Pakistan was the country that provided space to US security advisor Henry Kissinger to meet Chinese authority in order to establish the relations between People’s Republic of China and United States in 1971.

According to a former central intelligence agency’s officer (Mr.Ray Cline suggested some elements that can measure national power are:-

  • Economic power
  • Military strength
  • Strategic goals
  • Territory
  • National approach and population.

Without any confusion Pakistan as a state possesses all the elements but Pakistan has to mobilize its resources to get an effective foreign policy. Pakistan has close ties with all the Muslin countries with respect to its founder, Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s vision was to build fraternal relations with all the Muslim States.

Pakistan has close relations with Saudi Arabia due to the reason that Pakistan military has agreement with Saudi government to protect the interests of State in any critical stage likewise when militia group sieged Grand Mosque of Makkah in 1979 and afterwards about a division Pakistani troops remained there till the end of Iran-Iraq War. Saudi Government also asked for military assistance from Pakistan in Yemeni war but Pakistani Parliament rejected this request but somehow it provide some naval assistance to it. In either case, Pak-Saudi relations never tensed.

Pakistan has to adopt a very straight forward and balanced policy among United States of America, Russian Federation and People’s Republic of China. On the other hand Pakistan ought to balance the relations with Iran and Saudi Arabia as Iran is a neighbor and it’s major belongings are Shia Community and Saudi Arabia Possesses Sunni majority and enjoys long lasting cordial terms to whom Pakistan always asks for help in difficult times.

A geo locality example of difficulty was when Pakistan allied with United States in order to tackle Soviet intervention in Afghanistan with which Pakistan shares its longest border of 2252km , in that cold war Pakistan became the Non NATO ally in the war on terror and Pakistan had to fight with terrorist group TTP in it’s own country.

Pakistan has been under the threat since its birth as a state, so it joined regional organizations likes SEATO and CENTO but both failed to secure Pakistan’s interests as it fought 1965 and 1971 war without these defense alliances support. Currently Pakistan is the member of Islamic Military counter terrorism coalition. Pakistan has always try to neutralize the effects of Indian hegemony in the region. However Pakistan has tried several times to resume bilateral talks with India but its current PM Narendra Modi has always showed an opposite side. India has followed the strategy of isolating Pakistan at national and International levels but it can not aside Pakistan due to its Geo locality and large population.

Pakistan has the opportunity to deliver and promote peace and stability by finding a peaceful break through for Afghanistan because America and its NATO allies withdrawn in 2021.It has to counter the revival of Russian interference, China’s  increased path towards Pakistan and Iran’s stance  over few matters. Pakistan has greater opportunity as compared to past as peaceful Afghanistan can give gateway to Central Asia and many projects can be upheaval in the future.

Currently United States and Russia want to involve in the rehabilitation process but Pakistan’s role as a mediator can draw the positive image in the International arena.

As per Geo locality of Pakistan it can be recognized as a very crucial state because it owns every aspect of betterment.

As far as the past experiences are concerned Pakistan have to remain non aligned in any war, maintain balanced relations with Russia ,USA and China as per national interests. Counter the ideas of Iranian tilt and Saudi Arabian tilt.

Pakistan has to support Afghanistan and urge International community to support the war survived country and people. It has to ensure that Afghan soil won’t be used against Pakistan at any cost. Country can prosper more with relaxed neighbors and good relations regional and International stakeholders.

Posted in political issue.

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